Glioblastoma is an aggressive primary tumor of the central nervous system. Targeting the immunosuppressive glioblastoma-associated microenvironment is an interesting therapeutic approach. Tumor-associated macrophages represent an abundant population of tumor-infiltrating host cells with tumor-promoting features. The colony stimulating factor-1/ colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1/CSF1R) axis plays an important role for macrophage differentiation and survival. We thus aimed at investigating the anti-glioma activity of CSF1R inhibition alone or in combination with blockade of programmed death (PD) 1. We investigated combination treatments of anti-CSF1R alone or in combination with anti-PD1 antibodies in an orthotopic syngeneic glioma mouse model, evaluated post-treatment effects and assessed treatment-induced cytotoxicity in a co-culture model of patient-derived microtumors (PDM) and autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) ex vivo. Anti-CSF1R monotherapy increased the latency until the onset of neurological symptoms. Combinations of anti-CSF1R and anti-PD1 antibodies led to long-term survivors in vivo. Furthermore, we observed treatment-induced cytotoxicity of combined anti-CSF1R and anti-PD1 treatment in the PDM/TILs co-cultures ex vivo. Our results identify CSF1R as a promising therapeutic target for glioblastoma, potentially in combination with PD1 inhibition.