As global vaccination campaigns against SARS-CoV-2 proceed, there is emerging interest in the longevity of immune protection, especially with regard to increasingly infectious virus variants. Neutralizing antibodies (Nabs) targeting the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 are promising correlates of protective immunity and have been successfully used for prevention and therapy. To assess neutralizing capacity, we developed a bead-based multiplex ACE2 RBD competition assay as a large scalable, time-, cost-, and material-saving alternative to infectious live-virus neutralization tests. By mimicking the interaction between ACE2 and RBD, this assay detects the presence of Nabs against SARS-CoV2 in serum. Using this multiplex approach allows the simultaneous analysis of Nabs against all SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern and variants of interest in a single well. Following validation, we analyzed 325 serum samples from 186 COVID-19 patients of varying severity. Neutralization capacity was reduced for all variants examined compared to wild-type, especially for those displaying the E484K mutation. The neutralizing immune response itself, while highly individualistic, positively correlates with IgG levels. Neutralization capacity also correlated with disease severity up to WHO grade 7, after which it reduced.