Neurofascin (NF) is a cell surface protein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF). Different polypeptides of 186, 180, 166 and 155kDa are generated by alternative splicing. Expression of these isoforms is temporally and spatially regulated and can be roughly grouped into embryonic, adult and glial expression. NF interacts with many different interaction partners both extra- and intracellularly. Interactions of NF166 and NF180 selectively regulate mechanisms of plasticity like neurite outgrowth and the formation postsynaptic components. By contrast, NF155 and NF186 confer stabilization of neural structures by interaction with voltage-gated sodium channels and ankyrinG at axon initial segments (AIS) or nodes of Ranvier as well as neuron-glia interactions at the paranodes. Alternatively spliced isoforms of neurofascin may therefore balance dynamic and stabilizing mechanisms of the CNS.