Peritoneal mucosa of mesothelial cells line the abdominal cavity, surround intestinal organs and the female reproductive organs and are responsible for immunological integrity, organ functionality and regeneration. Peritoneal diseases range from inflammation, adhesions, endometriosis, and cancer. Efficient technologies to isolate and cultivate healthy patient-derived mesothelial cells with maximal purity enable the generation of capable 2D and 3D as well as in vivo-like microfluidic cell culture models to investigate pathomechanisms and treatment strategies. Here, we describe a new and easily reproducible technique for the isolation and culture of primary human mesothelial cells from laparoscopic peritoneal wash cytology. We established a protocol containing multiple washing and centrifugation steps, followed by cell culture at the highest purity and over multiple passages. Isolated peritoneal mesothelial cells were characterized in detail, utilizing brightfield and immunofluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry as well as Raman microspectroscopy and multivariate data analysis. Thereby, cytokeratin expression enabled specific discrimination from primary peritoneal human fibroblasts. Raman microspectroscopy and imaging were used to study morphology and biochemical properties of primary mesothelial cell culture compared to cryo-fixed and cryo-sectioned peritoneal tissue.