The spread of infectious diseases and vaccination history are common subjects of epidemiological and immunological research studies. Multiplexed serological assays are useful tools for assessing both current and previous infections as well as vaccination efficacy. We developed a serological multi-pathogen assay for hepatitis A, B and C virus, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Toxoplasma gondii, and Helicobacter pylori using a bead-based multiplex assay format. The multi-pathogen assay consisting of 15 antigens was utilized for the analysis of the serological response in elderly individuals of an influenza vaccination study (n = 34). The technical assay validation revealed a mean intra-assay precision of coefficient of variation (CV) = 3.2 ± 1.5% and a mean inter-assay precision of CV = 8.2 ± 5.3% across all 15 antigens and all tested samples, indicating a robust test system. Furthermore, the assay shows high sensitivities (ranging between 94% and 100%) and specificities (ranging between 93% and 100%) for the different pathogens. The highest seroprevalence rates in our cohort were observed for hepatitis A virus (HAV; 73.5%), followed by CMV (70.6%), T. gondii (67.6%) and H. pylori (32.4%). Seroprevalences for hepatitis B virus (HBV, 8.8%) and hepatitis C virus (HCV, 0%) were low. The seroprevalences observed in our study were similar to those from other population-based studies in Germany. In summary, we conclude that our multiplex serological assay represents a suitable tool for epidemiological studies.