When sterile culture techniques of mammalian cells first became state of the art, there was tremendous anticipation that such cells could be eventually applied for therapeutic purposes. The discovery of adult human stem or progenitor cells further motivated scienctists to pursue research in cell-based therapies. Although evidence from animal studies suggests that application of cells yields measurable benefits, in urology and many other disciplines, progenitor-cell-based therapies are not yet routinely clinically available. Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a condition affecting a large number of patients. The etiology of SUI includes, but is not limited to, degeneration of the urinary sphincter muscle tissue and loss of innervation, as well as anatomical and biomechanical causes. Therefore, different regimens were developed to treat SUI. However, at present, a curative functional treatment is not at hand. A progenitor-cell-based therapy that can tackle the etiology of incontinence, rather than the consequences, is a promising strategy. Therefore, several research teams have intensified their efforts to develop such a therapy for incontinence. Here, we introduce candidate stem and progenitor cells suitable for SUI treatment, show how functional homogeneity and state of maturity of differentiated cells crucial for proper tissue integration can be assessed electrophysiologically prior to their clinical application, and discuss the trophic potential of adult mesenchymal stromal (or stem) cells in regeneration of neuronal function.