Different bioartificial tubes were recommended for peripheral nerve reconstruction in the past. In order to replace autologous nerve grafts this materials are still under review in different animal studies. Most of them are dealing with the rodent peripheral nerves. One very popular animal model to study different materials is the rat median nerve model. With its easy excess, simple behavioral tests and reliable long term results it is attractive to many scientists in this field. This review gives an overview about the past, current and future options in this model for bioartificial nerve tubes. It summarizes the evolution of successful implantation of different materials across short nerve gaps and demonstrates the obstacles arising from long nerve gaps and the problems associated to them.