In the context of cancer surgery, there is always a trade-off between oncological safety and preservation of function. This is especially true in pelvic surgery due to the close relationship to the pelvic floor muscles, blood supply and nerves. Currently, risk models, preoperative imaging, the surgeon's assessment, and the intraoperative frozen section serve as the basis for decision-making. New imaging techniques and standardization in frozen section have significantly improved this in recent years. However, limitations remain due to time delays as well as more difficult correct anatomical assignment in the follow-up. Alternative intraoperative techniques may overcome this limitation in the future. Patient-derived organoids have emerged as an important new research vehicle in recent years. They are based on tumor stem cells that, under special culture conditions, form three-dimensional replicas of the original tissue. This makes them ideally suited for testing individual system therapies but also as a validation technique for new intraoperative diagnostic procedures. The Research Training Group 2543/I, which is funded by the German Research Foundation, is researching the potential of new diagnostic methods in an interdisciplinary team regarding validation in addition to intraoperative frozen sections.