Bioresorbable collagenous barrier membranes are used to prevent premature soft tissue ingrowth and to allow bone regeneration. For volume stable indications, only non-absorbable synthetic materials are available. This study investigates a new bioresorbable hydrofluoric acid (HF)-treated magnesium (Mg) mesh in a native collagen membrane for volume stable situations. Materials and Methods: HF-treated and untreated Mg were compared in direct and indirect cytocompatibility assays. In vivo, 18 New Zealand White Rabbits received each four 8 mm calvarial defects and were divided into four groups: (a) HF-treated Mg mesh/collagen membrane, (b) untreated Mg mesh/collagen membrane (c) collagen membrane and (d) sham operation. After 6, 12 and 18 weeks, Mg degradation and bone regeneration was measured using radiological and histological methods. Results: In vitro, HF-treated Mg showed higher cytocompatibility. Histopathologically, HF-Mg prevented gas cavities and was degraded by mononuclear cells via phagocytosis up to 12 weeks. Untreated Mg showed partially significant more gas cavities and a fibrous tissue reaction. Bone regeneration was not significantly different between all groups. Discussion and Conclusions: HF-Mg meshes embedded in native collagen membranes represent a volume stable and biocompatible alternative to the non-absorbable synthetic materials. HF-Mg shows less corrosion and is degraded by phagocytosis. However, the application of membranes did not result in higher bone regeneration.