Preparation of nanostructured Titanium surfaces for investigations of the interface between cell monolayers and Titanium.

Preparation of nanostructured Titanium surfaces for investigations of the interface between cell monolayers and Titanium.
Heeren A, Burkhardt C, Wolburg H, Henschel W, Nisch W, Kern DP
Microelectronic Engineering. 2006;83:1602-1604. DOI 10.1016/j.mee.2006.01.114

Titanium is the material of choice for many medical implants. The cells being directly in touch with the implant surface should not only survive but develop a strong adhesion to this surface. The topographic structure of biomaterial surfaces has a strong influence on cellular reactions. Therefore the study of the interface between cell monolayers and Titanium surfaces is of high interest. Relevant techniques in this field are transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The major challenge for the preparation is the cross-sectional cutting of the samples which is required for TEM analyses. For conventional ultrathin sectioning using an ultramicrotome, the preparation of the cell–substrate interface is rather complicated, e.g., involving Titanium coated Araldite replica of structured surfaces [D.L. Cochran, J. Simpson, H.P. Weber, D. Buser, Int. J. Oral Maxillofac. Implants 9 (1994) 289–297]. In this study, nanostructured surfaces were fabricated by electron beam lithography process (ebeam) where the negative resist hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) was directly sputter coated with Titanium. Focused ion beam (FIB) was used for the cross-sectioning for SEM and TEM analyses. science direct